TT Full Form:- The expanded form of TT is Tetanus Toxoid. Tetanus toxoid is an immunizing agent administered to prevent tetanus infection. Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive bacillus. Although it does not spread from person to person (noncommunicable disease), strains of Clostridium tetani make their way into the body through small wounds, cracks in the skin, or cuts in the mucous membranes of the skin. Strains of the bacillus are resistant to heat and produce a potent toxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin disrupts the normal functioning of the central nervous system. This is due to the interference created by tetanospasmin with the release of neurotransmitters, resulting in increased muscle spasms and contractions.
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Available Combinations with Tetanus Toxoid (TT)
DPT Vaccine: The nomenclature for DPT is diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. In combination with diphtheria toxoid and pertussis antigen.
DTaP vaccine: Nomenclature for diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis antigens.
Tdap Vaccine: Lowercase letters – P and D indicate the reduced form of toxoids.
In 1992 it was replaced with other varieties of vaccines such as Tdap and DTaP due to adverse reactions seen after giving a single injection of DPT.
TT Vaccine- Indications: TT Full Form
- Providing immunization to infants, children and adult populations.
- Persons at high risk of tetanus infection such as athletes, farmers, laboratory workers, gardeners etc.
- It has high prophylactic efficacy in matters of wound healing and management.
- Indicated in pregnant women or women of their childbearing age, to prevent the incidence of neonatal tetanus.
- Generally, three doses of tetanus toxoid are recommended. But in an injured person who has received less than three doses of TT vaccine, it is indicated. Tdap is usually given in such cases.
- In case of unknown vaccination history
TT Vaccine- Contraindications
In the following cases, there is a return to the vaccination schedule:
- Anaphylactic or allergic reaction to a previous dose of TT vaccine.
- If the occurrence of encephalopathy occurs within 7 days after receiving the tetanus toxoid vaccine, with no other etiologic factor, future doses are contraindicated in such individuals.
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Dosage of Tetanus Toxoid (TT)
FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved tetanus vaccine can be administered alone or in combination with other vaccines (DPT combination – diphtheria pertussis tetanus).
The dosage norms are different for children, adults and pregnant women.
In the case of children below seven years of age, five doses of the Tetanus Toxoid (TT) vaccine are prescribed. The following is the dosage norm.
Toxicokinetics of TT Full Form
The vaccine given for tetanus is a form of artificial active immunity. It serves to provoke our active immunity. When a weakened or dead strain of Clostridium tetani is introduced, the human body produces antibodies as a response to it (deliberately induced stimulation of the immune response). Therefore, if there is actual contact with the bacterial strain, the body is aware of the same antigens it was exposed to before and hence rapid antibody production will occur. Activation of B-cells results in the production of immunoglobulins against the toxoid. Antibodies tend to wane over time, so a timed vaccine schedule must be followed to increase antibody production over time.
Tetanus toxoid is not able to reveal any of its pathogenic properties because toxoid is an inactivated vaccine.
Side Effects After Getting the TT Vaccine
Although every vaccine has its side effects, the tetanus toxoid vaccine or a vaccine containing tetanus toxoid has its own side effects:
- pain at the injection site
- tender on site
- mild to moderate fever
- tongue coating
These tend to resolve with time and do not require further medical attention, but if they persist medical advice should be sought.
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Effectiveness of Tetanus Toxoid
The TT full-form vaccine is proven to be 100% effective against tetanus as long as the initial dose of vaccination is received. There are two types of vaccination: passive and active. Active immunization against TT full form with diphtheria and acellular pertussis (DTaP) is recommended for infants at 2–3 months, 6 months, 15–18 months and later at 5–6 years of age, respectively. Between the ages of 10 and 12, a subsequent dose of Tdap is given. According to research, vaccination remains effective for more than ten years. To reduce discomfort, the vaccine is also available in quadrivalent, pentavalent and hexavalent formulations.
Mechanism of Vaccine: TT Full Form
Tetanus needs to be actively immunized to create artificially active immunity. The mode of action is to inject the dead form of the disease, to which the immune system reacts and produces antibodies. This results in active immunity. This is beneficial in later life stages because, if the disease enters the body later, the immune system responds quickly by making antibodies and recognizing the antigen.
Since the fetus can acquire antibodies during the gestation period, the vaccine is essential. The shot is given between 26 and 36 weeks of pregnancy.
What are the Symptoms of Tetanus?
Often, “lockjaw”—jaw muscle spasms—is the first symptom of tetanus. Further symptoms of tetanus include jaw spasms, unexpected involuntary muscle spasms, severe muscle stiffness throughout the body, difficulty swallowing, seizures (jerking or staring), headache, fever and sweating, and changes in blood pressure and heart rate.
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Who Should Get the Tetanus Vaccine?
It is recommended for all adults aged seven and over who have not had a single dose of tetanus vaccination or completed the primary three-dose series. Adults are advised to receive one dose of Tdap vaccination to replace one of the Td booster doses given every ten years, and then follow this with another Td booster shot.
Who Should Not Get the Tetanus Vaccine: TT Full Form
People who have had a life-threatening allergic reaction to the last dose of the vaccine should not receive a second dose. People who have recently received a “live” vaccine (such as the nasal flu vaccine) should not receive the tetanus-diphtheria vaccine until the live vaccine has become fully effective.
What is the Full Form of TT?
The full form of TT is Tetanus Toxoid. It is the tetanus vaccine that protects against the disease. A bacterium called Clostridium tetani is the source of the serious neurological condition known as tetanus. Bacteria can enter the body through cuts, wounds, bites, burns, and other wounds. They affect the nervous system and can have serious consequences if left untreated. This condition often manifests as seizures, lockjaw, muscle spasms, stiffness, and problems swallowing. The vaccine was initially created in the 1920s and used successfully in World War II to protect American soldiers from tetanus. Tetanus vaccination is recommended for all newborns, children and adults. TT full-form vaccination should be prescribed by a qualified health practitioner.
Pregnant women are often given injections to prevent neonatal tetanus. It produces antibodies in the mother’s body that is passed on to the baby. Both mother and child are protected from tetanus.
Brief on Tetanus
Tetanus is a serious and potentially fatal infection caused by Clostridium tetani bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that affects the nervous system, causing muscle stiffness, spasms, and difficulty swallowing. Tetanus is usually contracted through a puncture wound, such as a deep cut or a puncture by a dirty object.
Symptoms of tetanus usually appear within 3 to 21 days after infection. Early symptoms include muscle stiffness in the muscles of the jaw, neck, and abdomen (this symptom causes tetanus to sometimes be referred to as “lockjaw”), as well as stiffness in the chest and limbs, and difficulty swallowing. As the disease progresses, muscle spasms and seizures may occur.
Tetanus can be treated with antibiotics to kill the bacteria and tetanus toxoids to neutralize the toxin. In severe cases, supportive care in a hospital setting may be necessary. Wound care and the tetanus vaccine are important to prevent tetanus. Tetanus booster shots are usually recommended every 10 years. It is a serious disease, and it can be fatal in up to 10% of cases, especially in older adults. But with prompt and proper medical treatment, the prognosis for tetanus is generally good.
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Due to Tetanus: TT Full Form
- Tetanus is caused by a bacterial infection of Clostridium tetani.
- The bacteria are commonly found in soil and animal faeces and can infect humans through cuts, puncture wounds, or burns.
- Tetanus can also occur after surgical procedures, childbirth, or other injuries that break the skin.
- Tetanus can also result from a contaminated injection or vaccination.
- In some cases, the infection can occur without an obvious wound or injury, such as when bacteria are inhaled or ingested.
- Tetanus can also occur in people who have not been vaccinated against the disease, or whose vaccinations have not been kept up to date.
- Certain conditions, such as diabetes, can also increase the risk of tetanus.
- Tetanus is highly contagious and can be spread from person to person through contact with a contaminated wound or infected material.
- This is a serious disease that can lead to muscle stiffness, spasms and even death if left untreated.
- Tetanus can also occur as a complication of other conditions, such as gangrene or sepsis.
FAQs on TT Full Form
What is the full form of TT in medicine?
TT stands for Tetanus Toxoid. TT, also known as the tetanus vaccine, is an inactivated vaccine used for the prevention of tetanus.
What is the full form of TT surgery?
Tubectomy or tubal ligation:
Tubectomy has become an increasingly popular form of contraception in India over the years. Also known as tubal ligation, this surgical procedure is performed to make sure that the fallopian tubes in your body are blocked—clamped, sealed, or cut.
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What is TT in gynaecology?
Tetanus toxoid (TT injection in pregnancy)/TD (tetanus and diphtheria toxoid) pregnancy vaccination protects both the mother and the newborn against tetanus and diphtheria. The Tdap vaccine additionally protects against pertussis, particularly in newborns, through the transplacental transfer of antibodies from mother to fetus.
What is TL in surgery?
Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure to prevent pregnancy. This is commonly referred to as “getting your tubes tied.” It is also called female sterilization. Tubal refers to the fallopian tubes.
What is TOC surgery?
Oculoplastic surgery, also known as ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive, oculofacial or eye plastic surgery, is a surgical subspecialty of ophthalmology that deals with deformities and abnormalities of the eyelids, lacrimal (tear) system, orbit (bony sockets), Relates to medical and surgical management. ,
What is a tubectomy operation?
What do you understand by tubectomy surgery? Tubectomy or tubal sterilization is a permanent method of contraception for women. It is a surgical procedure that clips the fallopian tubes, thus preventing the egg released by the ovary from reaching the final destination i.e. the uterus.
Can TT be injected after 72 hours of injury?
For people who are up to date on vaccination, a booster shot should be given within 48 hours after the injury.
What is the TT vaccine used for?
Tetanus toxoid is used to prevent tetanus (also known as lockjaw). Also, Tetanus is a serious disease that causes convulsions (seizures) and severe muscle spasms that can be strong enough to cause spinal fractures. Tetanus causes death in 30 to 40 per cent of cases.
Why is TT taken during pregnancy?
Pregnant women have been receiving both tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines worldwide to prevent neonatal tetanus since the 1960s. The Td and TT vaccines given during pregnancy have not shown any harm to the mother or the baby/fetus.
Is TT necessary for pregnancy?
Obstetric care providers should give tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine to all pregnant patients during each pregnancy, as early as possible in the 27–36-week gestation period.
What is the TT test?
Thrombin time (TT), also known as thrombin clotting time (TCT), is a blood test that measures the time it takes for a fibrin clot to form in the plasma of a blood sample. It measures the activity of fibrinogen and is used to check for excessive bleeding or improper blood clotting.
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