PSA Full Form:- Prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, is a protein produced by normal, as well as malignant, cells of the prostate gland. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood. For this test, a blood sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis. Results are usually reported as nanograms of PSA per millilitre (ng/mL) of blood. Blood levels of PSA are often elevated in people with prostate cancer, and the PSA test was originally approved by the FDA in 1986 to monitor the progress of prostate cancer in men who had already been diagnosed with the disease.
In 1994, the FDA approved the PSA test to be used in conjunction with a digital rectal exam (DRE) to aid in the detection of prostate cancer in men 50 years of age and older. Until about 2008, many doctors and professional organizations encouraged annual PSA screening for prostate cancer starting at age 50.
Is the PSA Test Recommended for Prostate Cancer Screening?
Starting around 2008, as more was learned about both the benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening, several professional medical organizations began to caution against routine population screening with PSA testing. Most organizations recommend that individuals who are considering PSA screening first discuss the risks and benefits with their doctors.
Some organizations recommend that men who are at high risk of prostate cancer begin PSA screening at age 40 or 45. These include black men, men with BRCA2 (and to a lesser extent, germline variants in BRCA1) and men whose father or brother had prostate cancer.
In 2018, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) updated its recommendation statement for prostate cancer screening, changing the exit disclaimer from “D” (not recommended) to “C” (selectively based on professional judgment and patient preferences). offering PSA-based screening) ) in men aged 55 to 69 years. (USPSTF continues to recommend against PSA screening for men age 70 and older.) Updated recommendation, which applies to the general population as well as those at increased risk due to race/ethnicity or family history. , Is in this type:
- For men ages 55 to 69, the decision to have periodic PSA-based screening for prostate cancer should be an individual one. Before making a decision, a person should discuss the potential benefits and harms of screening with their doctor and consider these in the context of their own values and priorities.
- PSA-based screening for prostate cancer is not recommended for men 70 years of age and older.
Currently, Medicare provides coverage for annual PSA testing for all Medicare-eligible individuals aged 50 and older. Many private insurers also cover PSA screening.
What is a Normal PSA Test Result: PSA Full Form
There is no specific normal or abnormal level of PSA in the blood. In the past, PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL and below were considered normal. However, some men with PSA levels less than 4.0 ng/mL have prostate cancer, and many men with high PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL do not have prostate cancer.
Furthermore, various factors can cause one’s PSA level to fluctuate. For example, PSA levels increase with age, the size of the prostate gland, and inflammation or infection. A recent prostate biopsy will also raise the PSA level, as can ejaculation or vigorous exercise (such as bicycling) in the 2 days before the test. In contrast, some drugs—including finasteride and dutasteride, which are used to treat BPH—lower PSA levels. In general, however, the higher a man’s PSA level, the more likely he is to have prostate cancer.
What is Done if a Screening Test Shows an Increased PSA Level?
If a man with no symptoms of prostate cancer chooses to be screened for prostate cancer and is found to have a high PSA level, the doctor may recommend another PSA test to confirm the original finding. Is. If the PSA level is still high, the doctor may recommend continuing with PSA testing and digital rectal examination (DRE) at regular intervals to watch for any changes over time (also called observation or watchful waiting). Can
If PSA levels continue to rise or a suspicious lump is detected during the DRE, the doctor may recommend additional tests to determine the nature of the problem. These may include imaging tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or high-resolution micro-ultrasound.
What Are Some of the Limitations and Potential Disadvantages of the PSA Test for Prostate Cancer Screening: PSA Full Form
Early detection of prostate cancer may not reduce the chance of dying from prostate cancer. When used in screening, the PSA test can help detect small tumours. However, finding and treating a small tumour may not reduce your chance of dying from prostate cancer. This is because many tumours found through the PSA test grow so slowly that they are unlikely to be life-threatening. Detecting such tumours is called “overdiagnosis” and treating them is called “overtreatment”.
Overtreatment exposes a man unnecessarily to the potential complications associated with prostate surgery and radiation therapy. These include urinary (eg, urinary incontinence, or leakage of urine after surgery and increased frequency and urgency of urination after radiation), gastrointestinal (eg, loose stools or, less commonly, rectal bleeding after radiation), and sexual Side effects (disadvantages) are included. erection or low erection after both surgery and radiation).
What has Been Found in Randomized Trials of Prostate Cancer Screening?
Several large, randomized trials of prostate cancer screening have been conducted. One of the largest is the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, which the NCI conducted to determine whether certain screening tests could help reduce the number of deaths from several common cancers. Can In the prostate portion of the trial, PSA testing and digital rectal examination were evaluated for their ability to reduce the chance of dying from prostate cancer.
The PLCO investigators found that men who had annual prostate cancer screening had a higher incidence of prostate cancer than men in the control group, but had nearly identical rates of death from the disease (3). Overall, the results suggest that many men were treated for prostate cancer that would not be detected during their lifetime without screening. As a result, these men were unnecessarily exposed to the potential harm of treatment.
What if My PSA is High?
PSA screening is just the first step, alerting you and your doctor that more testing may be needed. If the PSA is only slightly elevated, your doctor may recommend repeating the test after a few weeks. From there, other types of tests can help decide whether you need a biopsy, including:
- Digital rectal exam (DRE), if not already done
- Free PSA test (<10% free PSA indicates a high risk of cancer; 10-20% is borderline) PSA velocity, or rate of increase over time (faster increases mean higher risk) PSA density, or the amount of PSA per prostate (higher density means higher risk) PSA-based markers (eg, Prostate Health Index, 4K score) urinary markers (eg, EPI test score >15, PCA3 or SelectMDx)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate.
FAQs on PSA Full Form
What does PSA mean?
A laboratory test that measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) found in the blood. PSA is a protein made by the prostate gland. PSA levels can be high in men who have prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or infection or inflammation of the prostate.
What is normal PSA?
In general, a PSA level that is less than 3.0 ng/mL is considered to be within the normal range. A PSA level that is above 3.0 ng/mL is considered suspicious. However, PSA levels can rise as you get older. For men over the age of 75, a PSA of less than 4.0 ng/mL is considered normal.
Why is the PSA test done?
The PSA test is a blood test used to help detect prostate cancer. But it is not exhaustive and will not detect all prostate cancers. The test, which can be done at a GP surgery, measures the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in your blood. PSA is a protein made only by the prostate gland.
What happens if PSA is high?
Elevated PSA levels may indicate the presence of cancer, but high PSA levels may also be the result of non-cancerous conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or infection. PSA levels naturally increase as you age. An elevated PSA level does not necessarily mean you have prostate cancer.
What does PSA mean at work?
Automation of professional services:
Professional Services Automation (PSA) is a type of software application suite that provides a service business with the functionality it needs to manage core business processes. PSA software provides essential business automation for professional services organizations, such as law firms and accounting partnerships.
What causes PSA to rise?
For example, PSA levels increase with age, the size of the prostate gland, and inflammation or infection. A recent prostate biopsy will also raise the PSA level, as can ejaculation or vigorous exercise (such as bicycling) in the 2 days before the test.
Which PSA level is dangerous?
Although a PSA level between 4.0 and 10.0 is considered “suspicious.” There is only a 25% chance that it is prostate cancer. If your PSA level is 10 ng/mL or higher, these levels are considered “dangerous”. This means you have a 50% chance of getting prostate cancer.
Can PSA go down without treatment?
While both age and genetics affect PSA levels, lifestyle factors actually play the biggest role. Therefore simple changes in health, a PSA Full Form diet and an exercise routine can lower PSA levels naturally.
PSA Full Form: Is PsA fatal?
PSA levels above 10 ng/mL are considered particularly risky. Patients should consult their physician immediately, as there is a possibility of prostate cancer. Elevated PSA levels may indicate cancer or other types of infections or conditions.
Can High PSA Cause Death?
Stephenson et al., in a multi-institutional study, showed that a high PSA before surgical treatment is associated with a higher risk of cancer-related death at 10 years. The risk of death from prostate cancer doubling if the pretreatment PSA Increases from <4 ng/mL to 10.1–20 ng/mL (5).