EEPROM Full Form, eeprom example, eeprom programming, how eeprom works,

EEPROM Full Form, Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory and Introduction, Disadvantages & FAQs

EEPROM Full Form:- EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. EEPROM is a form of non-volatile memory integrated into microcontrollers for smart cards, remote keyless devices, and various electronic or computational devices. It is employed to store relatively small amounts of data and allows individual bytes to be deleted and reprogrammed. EEPROM is a modified version of EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) that employs electrical signals, instead of UV signals formerly used in EPROM, to erase and rewrite programs or data. Computers mainly use it as a chip to store digital data.

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Arrays of floating-gate transistors make up EEPROMs. EEPROMs can be programmed and deleted in-circuit using specific programming signals. EEPROMs could initially only perform single-byte operations, which made them slow; However, more recent EEPROMs support multi-byte page operations. The longevity of EEPROM is due to an important design factor in EEPROM being reprogrammed regularly. A contemporary EEPROM can now be reprogrammed a million times before needing to erase and replace an item.



EEPROM is electrically erasable programmable read-only memory, it is a non-volatile memory chip, used in computers, microcontrollers and remote systems. It allows small bytes of data to be stored, erased and re-programmed. This article covers everything about electrically erasable programmable read-only memory, also known as EEPROM. This article covers the essential reason for the invention of EEPROM and the different memory interfaces of EEPROM.

EEPROM Full Form: Origin of EEPROM

EEPROM was developed from the standard technology of EPROM, which was most widely used in the late 1970s. Data is stored in EPROM memory chips, which are mostly machine software; This is later erased by exposing the chip to UV light if the software needs to be changed. This deletion process took about an hour and was acceptable for development environments. These memories cannot be erased by electricity and the system of erasing these memories by electricity would be more convenient.

In 1983, Intel developed a technology modifying the existing technology EPROM. EEPROM has been developed with the same features as EPROM in that the memory can be erased and rewritten electrically. The first EEPROM device to be launched was the Intel 2816. Later many of Intel’s experienced EEPROM developers left and started their own company called Seeq.

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Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM)

EEPROM is a type of semiconductor chip, which is a non-volatile memory used to store small data. These stored data can be erased and reprogrammed. To erase data, high voltage is required and EEPROMs are then produced, which require high voltage.

For those who have experience with RAM, EEPROM is very slow compared to erase and write. Therefore, the data is stored in the EEPROM memory such that it does not affect the operation of the overall system. Erasing and writing in EEPROM are done on a byte-per-byte basis. EEPROM uses the same technology that is used by EPROM memory. Even though the memory cell configuration differs, the basic idea behind each memory cell is the same.

EEPROM Full Form
EEPROM Full Form

The memory cell consists of two transistors that are field effective:

  1. storage transistor
  2. access transistor

Storage Transistor:

The storage transistor is also called the floating gate. Electrons are stored in this gate, the number of electrons present or absent in this gate determines the data stored.

Access Transistor:

The access transistor takes care of the operational aspects of the memory cell.

Serial and parallel interface of EEPROM

EEPROM uses serial and parallel interfaces for data input and output. The actual method in which a memory device is used depends on the memory type and its interface.

Serial EEPROM Memory:

The most commonly used serial interfaces are Microwire, I2P, SPI and 1-wire, UNI/O. Serial EEPROMs are difficult to operate, as data is transferred in a serial fashion, making the process much slower than with their parallel EEPROM interface. An EEPROM serial protocol consists of three phases: the op-code phase, the address phase, and the data phase.

Each EEPROM device has its own set of OP-code instructions associated with different functions. Common operations performed by Serial Peripheral Interface EEPROM devices are:

  1. Read Status Register (RDSR)
  2. Write Status Register (WRSR)
  3. Write Enable (WRENAL)
  4. Right Disable (WRDI)
  5. read data (read)
  6. write data (write)

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Some other operations that can be performed by EEPROM devices are:

  1. Program
  2. erase sector
  3. chip erase

Parallel EEPROM Memory:

EEPROM devices, which are in parallel, have an address bus and an 8-bit data bus, which covers the entire memory. These devices have chip-protect pins. Microcontrollers use parallel EEPROM. The operation of parallel EEPROM is simple and efficient. Parallel EEPROM is faster than serial EEPROM, but the size of these devices is larger because of the larger pin count, around 28 pins, so it is less used, and serial EEPROM is used. Flash memory has better performance at the same cost as EEPROM, while serial EEPROM offers a smaller size.

EEPROM Full Form: Disadvantages of EEPROM

EEPROM has two major limitations, one is reliability. For this reason, EEPROM is less used, as other memory devices provide better reliable memory storage. EEPROM Limitations

  1. data endurance
  2. data retention
EEPROM Full Form
EEPROM Full Form

Pros of EEPROM

Some of the positive aspects of EEPROM are listed below:

  • Data can be erased quickly as it employs electrical signals and has the option of erasing complete contents or specific bytes.
  • Data stored in EEPROM is non-volatile and remains intact even when the power is turned off.
  • It is easy to reprogram, which can be done without removing it from the computer and without additional equipment.
  • EPROM electronically erases contents in 5–10 ms, unlike EPROM, which uses UV signals and erases memory in minutes.

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Cons of EEPROM

Some of the negatives of EEPROM are listed below:

  • Problems with data retention because the insulator used is not a perfect insulator, and the manufacturer guarantees data retention for only ten years.
  • Viewing, writing and deleting content requires separate voltages.

History: EEPROM Full Form

EEPROM was developed by George Perlegos at Intel in 1978. Being a non-volatile memory means that it retains all the data even when the power is off and stores a larger capacity of data or bits as compared to EPROM. It is also used as flash memory in the above version and to store the BIOS of the computer.

Less time-consuming: EEPROM takes 5-10 milliseconds to erase content electronically, and EPROM takes minutes to erase the same content using UV signals.

Programmable and Erasable Content: It can be reprogrammed many times and its life cycle is to be defined by the manufacturer it can be up to 1 million life cycles in modern EEPROMs.

No chip removal: To reprogram or erase content, there is no need to take the chip out of the computer.


  • Fast erasing of data as it uses electrical signals and can erase all content or erase it by specific byte.
  • The stored data is non-volatile and remains intact even when the power is turned off.
  • It is easy to reprogram without removing it from the computer and no additional tools are required for reprogramming.


  • Data retention issue as the insulator used is not a perfect insulator and the manufacturer provides data retention for up to 10 years.
  • Different voltages are required for reading, writing and erasing the content.

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Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM) Full Form

It is a chip that can be rewritten and hold data without power. Although byte-addressable, EEPROMs must first be erased in order to be rewritten. Circuit boards often use EEPROMs to store small amounts of data and instructions. It has a long lifetime (typically 1,000,000 cycles) and a small erasable block (as small as one byte). George Perlegos created EEPROM in 1978 at Intel. Being a non-volatile memory, it preserves all information even when the power is turned off and can store more data or bits than earlier EPROMs. In newer versions, it serves as flash memory and holds the computer’s BIOS.

Flash memory is a form of EEPROM designed for great speed, and high density at the cost of large erase blocks (typically 512 bytes or larger) and a limited amount of write cycles (often 10,000). Many microcontrollers have both: a small EEPROM for parameters and flash memory for firmware. Wherever systems require large amounts of non-volatile solid-state storage, flash memory is the preferred memory choice because it is significantly less expensive than byte-programmable EEPROM. EEPROMs are still common in programs such as SPD (Serial Presence Detect) which require a minimum storage capacity.

EEPROM Full Form
EEPROM Full Form

Disadvantages of EPROM

  • Users cannot select any particular data for deletion. They have to delete the entire set of data instead. This is cause for concern in the case of critical pieces of information.
  • You will need to back up the EPROM to avoid erasing all the data.
  • EPROM requires UV light to erase data and is very rare.
  • Deleting and erasing data becomes quite complicated and costly for some users. It may also be inaccessible.

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FAQs on EEPROM Full Form

What is EEPROM used for?

Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) is a persistent, non-volatile memory storage system used to store a minimum amount of data in computer and electronic systems and devices, such as circuit boards.

What is the difference between EPROM and EEPROM?

There is a basic difference between EPROM and EEPROM. One can erase data from EPROM using UV (Ultra Violet) rays. On the other hand, erasing data from EEPROM requires the use of electrical signals.

Is EEPROM a flash memory?

Also, Flash memory is a type of EEPROM designed for high speed and high density, at the expense of large erase blocks (typically 512 bytes or larger) and a limited number of write cycles (often 10,000).

What is EPROM in computer memory?

EPROM, in Fully Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, is a form of computer memory that does not lose its contents when the power supply is turned off and that can be erased and reused. EPROMs are typically employed for programs designed for repeated use but can be upgraded with later versions of the program.

Which devices use EEPROM?

There are many types of EEPROM devices available, but one of the most commonly used EEPROM families are 24CXX series devices such as 24C02, 24C04, 24C08 and etc. They all have similar features but the only difference is in their memory.


So, EEPROM is a type of non-volatile ROM that enables EEPROM Full Form individual bytes of data to be erased and reprogrammed. That’s why EEPROM chips are known as byte erasable chips.

Is EEPROM faster than RAM?

RAM (Random Access Memory) is usually volatile, which means that if the power goes out, the contents of the memory are gone too. The big advantage of RAM is that read and write access times are much faster than either EPROM or EEPROM.

EEPROM Full Form
EEPROM Full Form

Is EPROM permanent memory?

A programmed EPROM can retain its data for 10 to 20 years. Some EPROMs can retain data for even longer. Data is retained even when power is cut off and can be recovered after power is turned back on, making it a type of non-volatile memory. To erase and reprogram the EPROM, UV light is required.

What is the size of EEPROM?

PSoC devices have an EEPROM memory arranged in an array. The PSoC 3 and PSoC 5LP devices provide an EEPROM array of size 512 bytes, 1 KB or 2 KB depending on the device. The EEPROM array can be divided into sectors that contain 64 rows with a size of 16 bytes.

Is EEPROM volatile or non-volatile?

Other non-volatile memory types, such as EEPROM, are both faster and less expensive than bubble memory. Flash memory: A special type of EEPROM that can be erased and reprogrammed in blocks instead of one byte at a time.

Are SD cards EEPROM?

Also, SD and microSD cards are EEPROM (electronically erasable programmable read-only memory) memory chips. Inside the chip, it is engineered with a circuit system that serves as memory storage and processes data with high efficiency and a few transistors that maintain the data path.

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