EEG Full Form, EEG Test Side Effects, Indications, EEG Test Results, FAQs

What is the full form of EEG?

The full form of EEG is Electroencephalogram. It is a procedure that carries out to evaluate the brain’s electrical behaviour. Brain cells, known as neurons, interact through electrical impulses with one another. EEG includes a brain wave metric, which is how the brain functions throughout time. It detects brain wave patterns of the brain’s electrical impulses and records them.

  • Tiny metal discs with a fine wire that are labelled as electrodes arrive with the system that users perform the test.
  • The electrodes are mounted on the scalp from where it passes signals to the computer to track the result.
  • It produces a standard or identifiable pattern for familiar brain activity, but the pattern can alter or unrecognizable for abnormal brain activity.

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Working principle of EEG:

  • The EEG procedure is safe and pain-free.
  • The electrodes mounted on the scalp collect electrical activity within your brain from the brain cells known as neurons and forward it to a system where they are seen as a series of lines registered or shown on a computer monitor (running paper).
  • The technician would take the electrodes off after getting the results.
  • Your brain wave sequence recordings can be studied by a doctor specializing in the brain, like a neurologist.

Why does the doctor suggest the individual take the EEG test?

The EEG is carried out to treat the specific health conditions or in the following cases:

  • To diagnose and track seizure diseases
  • Therefore detecting sleep disorders & epilepsy
  • To figure out the source of several other issues, like sleep disorders and behavioural changes issues.
  • After a major head injury or before a liver or heart transplant, determine brain activity.

Why is an EEG performed?

EEGs have been used since 1929 to detect problems in the electrical activity of the brain that are associated with certain brain disorders. The measurements given by an EEG uses to confirm or rule out various conditions, including:

  • seizure disorders (such as epilepsy)
  • head injury
  • encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
  • brain tumour
  • encephalopathy (a disease that causes brain dysfunction)
  • sleep disorders
  • stroke
  • dementia

When someone is in a coma, an EEG may perform to determine their level of brain activity. The test can also use to monitor activity during brain surgery.

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Are there risks associated with an EEG?

EEG Full Form is Electroencephalogram. EEG is usually painless and very safe. If an EEG does not produce any abnormalities, stimuli such as strobe lights, or rapid breathing may add to help induce any abnormalities.

When someone has epilepsy or another seizure disorder, there’s a small risk that the stimuli presented during the test (such as a flashing light) may cause a seizure. The technician performing the EEG train to safely manage any situation that might occur.

HyperventilationTrusted Source also commonly induces during an EEG to produce abnormalities. Some people may not be able to hyperventilate safely, such as people with a history of stroke, asthma, or sickle cell anaemia.

How to prepare for an EEG:

Before the test, you should take the following steps:

  • Ask your doctor if you should stop taking any medications before the test. You should also make a list of your medications and give it to the technician performing the EEG.
  • Wash your hair the night before the EEG. Don’t put any products like sprays or gels on the day of the test.
  • Avoid eating or drinking anything containing caffeine for at least 8 hours before the test.
  • Your doctor may ask you to sleep as little as possible the night before the test if you have to sleep during the EEG. You may also give a sedative to help you relax and sleep before the test begins.
  • In some cases, you may need to give a sedative during the procedure. If so, your doctor will ask you to bring someone who can drive you home afterwards.

What do the EEG test results mean?

A neurologist (someone who specializes in nervous system disorders) interprets the recordings from the EEG and then sends the results to your doctor. Your doctor may schedule an appointment to go over the test results with you.

Normal results:

Electrical activity in the brain appears in an EEG as a pattern of waves. Different levels of consciousness, like sleeping and waking, have a specific range of frequencies of waves per second that consider normal. For example, the wave patterns move faster when you’re awake than when you’re asleep. The EEG will show if the frequency of waves or patterns is normal.

Abnormal results:

Abnormal EEG results may be due to:

  • epilepsy or another seizure disorder
  • abnormal bleeding or haemorrhage
  • sleep disorder
  • encephalitis (swelling of the brain)
  • tumour
  • dead tissue due to a blockage of blood flow
  • migraine
  • excessive alcohol or drug use
  • head injury

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It’s very important to discuss your test results with your doctor. Before you review the results, it may be helpful to write down any questions you might want to ask. Be sure to speak up if there’s anything about your results that you don’t understand.

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